Programming Languages, HTML & CSS


php-logoPHP is sometimes called the language of the internet because it is so widely used. It is a server-side scripting language which means that it’s run (interpreted) on a remote server. Scripting languages are technically not programming languages, but let’s not get too technical here. PHP stands for PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor. Hypertext refers to links in web pages of course.

PHP is used for website and web application development. It can also be used for general programming unrelated to a the web. It is used by many of the popular website applications available today. WordPress is the most widely used website software today and is based on PHP.

PHP is a free language (open source) and so is the Zend engine which is used on the server to interpret the PHP. The results of the PHP code is combined with HTML and CSS to create web pages.

PHP is relatively easy to learn especially for web pages and basic applications.

Learn about PHP:

PHP Documentation

PHP Codecacademy

PHP Tutorial



Python is a widely used general purpose language. Like PHP it too is an interpreted language processed by a remote server. Unlike PHP, Python can be compiled into stand alone applications that can be run on a number of platforms without installing an interpreter. For example, a Python application can run on a Windows PC once compiled.

Python is used for web development, desktop applications and gaming. It’s open source which means it’s free to use. CPython is a free interpreter for servers. Third-party tools are used to compile an application for Windows and other platforms..

Python is relatively easy to learn. In fact, code readability is one philosophy of its design. Also, Python can accomplish the same task with fewer lines of code.

Learn about Python:

Python Tutorial

Python Codecademy



Ruby is the darling of the decade when it comes to programming languages. Ruby has been rapidly adopted in the last decade for web development, general programming and database applications.Ruby is designed as an object oriented language.

Ruby, like other popular languages, is open source. You can develop it on Linux, MAC and Windows based computers. Ruby is often combined with a framework like Rails for web development. The Rails framework provides a model-view-controler (MVC) pattern and numberous cummunity supplied libraries than Ruby alone.

Ruby is a relatively easy language to learn. Combining it with a framework like Rails is a step up in the learning curve. However, there are plenty of free resources that should make it a workable endeavor to learn Ruby and Rails.

Learn about Ruby and Rails:

Ruby documentation

Ruby Codecademy

Ruby on Rails

Ruby on Rails Codecademy


JavaScript is used primarily for web pages but can be used in other environments. JavaScript is run by your browser in most implementations and is called dyanamic because it makes things move, change color, display popups or otherwise changes what you see on the web page. JavaSript is not related to Java.

Server-side JavaScript implementations like Node.js have increased in recent years. Node.js provides for a complete website and web application platform from the server.

Learn about JavaScript:

Mozilla Developer Network

Javascript Guide

Javascript Codecademy

Learn Javascript


Microsoft logoC# is called C sharp and is a general purpose object-oriented programming language. It was created by Microsoft for its .Net framework. The .Net framework is a web-based platform for applications and web data exchange. It’s based on the C++ language. Applications developed in C# are intended to be portable. Since it’s a Microsoft language, it’s used primarily by organizations that employ Microsoft servers.

Learn about C#:

Getting started with C#

Programming Guide

Java logoJava

Java is a general purpose programming language developed at Sun Microsystems. Sun was acquired by Oracle. Java code must be compiled which means it’s translated from human readable code into machine readable code. Once compiled, it can run on many platforms. It’s designed to run on everything including PCs, game consoles and hardware controllers. Most web browsers support Java applets by default.

Java and the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) are open source and freely available.

Learn about Java:

Java Documentation

Learn Java

Java Codecademy


Pronounced C plus plus, C++ is an open source, object-oriented language. Each application must be compiled to a specific operating system or platform. It’s a superset of the C language.  C++ is a powerful language that is biased toward system programming, embedded applications and limited resource environments. It can be compiled to run on a PC or a server just to name a couple of platforms. It provides low level access to the platform environment (memory manipulation for example).

Learn about C++:


C++ Programming

Learn C++

HTML & CSS (Not actually languages, but you’ll need them for web pages)


HTML5 BadgeHTML is the basic building block of a web page. HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language. It is not a programming language. It’s used by your browser to define what should be displayed on a page. For example, the web page might include a heading, a paragraph of text and an photo. HTML would tell your browser that these are the elements that should be displayed for a web page. The modern implementation of HTML is HTML5 which should be used on all new websites.

Learn about HTML5:

HTML Codecademy

HTML5 Tutorial


CSS3 LogoIf HTML is the building block of web pages, CSS is the finishing touch that makes it look good! For example, if the HTML provides a heading, paragraph of text and an image, the CSS might provide that the heading should be a large, green font; the paragraph be in a small, red font; and the image should have an orange border and be on the right side of the text. CSS tells your browser how to display what HTML provides as the content. The modern implementation of CSS is CSS3 which should be used on new websites. Just so you know, CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets.

Learn about CSS3:

CSS Codecademy

CSS3 Tutorial